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    South Dakota Crop Progress & Condition

    For the week ending July 13, 2014, below normal temperatures and scattered rain showers dominated the weather pattern, according to the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. Statewide, there were 6.0 days suitable for fieldwork. Topsoil moisture supplies rated 0 percent very short, 11 short, 85 adequate, and 4 surplus. Subsoil moisture supplies rated 0 percent very short, 9 short, 85 adequate, and 6 surplus.

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    Flooded Crops: Replant Decisions in Regards to Crop Insurance

    Earlier in June, several large rain events caused significant flooding and ponding in fields throughout South Dakota. In some areas, flood waters uprooted crops and washed away topsoil. In fields where ponds remained after rains ended, soils were likely water-saturated and largely devoid of oxygen. Although at this point the extent of the damage to crops is still being determined, some fields have been compromised and yield loss will likely occur.

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    Declining Rates-of-Return to South Dakota Agricultural Land

    According to results from a farm real estate survey conducted by agricultural economists at South Dakota State University, cash rates-of-return for all uses of agricultural land in the state declined slightly during the 1990’s and declined substantially from 2001 to present (Figure 1). The gross rate-of-return (cash rent as a percent of land value) is used to estimate current rates-of-return to agricultural land.

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    The National Fusarium Prediction Center is Up and Running

    The National Fusarium Prediction Center is an online tool that estimates the likelihood of Fusarium head blight (FHB), also called scab, to develop in wheat. This tool uses weather information to predict the risk for scab. Wheat is most vulnerable to scab development around flowering time and shortly thereafter (infection takes place through the flower). The most important weather variable in scab development is rainfall.

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    Field Flooding: Impact of saturated, flooded, ponded soils on crop growth

    Some areas in the state have received over 9 inches of rain in the last 7 days. These rains have left many crop fields flooded/ponded or fully saturated. Fully saturated and flooded soils are deficient of oxygen because the soil air spaces are displaced by water. Questions are being asked if the crops submerged or partially submerged in flood water will survive. The probability that such crops will survive depends on the type of the crop, crop growth stage, soil type, temperature, and the duration of the ponding/saturation.

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    South Dakota Hay Land Rental Rates Increase in 2014

    Cash rental rates for South Dakota non-irrigated hay land continued to appreciate in 2014 according to results from a farm real estate survey conducted by agricultural economists at South Dakota State University. The 2014 average cash rental rate for South Dakota non-irrigated hay land was $84.40 per-acre; an increase of $5.10 per-acre or 6.4% from last year.

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    South Dakota Hay Land Values Increase in 2014

    South Dakota non-irrigated hay land values increased modestly in 2014 according to results from a farm real estate survey conducted by agricultural economists at South Dakota State University. The 2014 average value of non-irrigated hay land in the state was $2,458 per-acre; an increase of $173 per-acre or 7.6% from last year.

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    South Dakota Cropland Rental Rates Increase Moderately in 2014

    Cash rental rates for South Dakota non-irrigated cropland increased marginally in 2014 according to results from a farm real estate survey conducted by agricultural economists at South Dakota State University. The 2014 average cash rental rate for South Dakota non-irrigated cropland was $150.10 per-acre; an increase of $5.80 per-acre or 4.0% from last year.

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    South Dakota Cropland Values Increase Moderately in 2014

    South Dakota non-irrigated cropland values increased marginally in 2014 according to results from a farm real estate survey conducted by agricultural economists at South Dakota State University. The 2014 average value of non-irrigated cropland in the state was $4,478 per-acre; an increase of $229 per-acre or 5.4% from last year.

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    South Dakota Agricultural Land Values Increase Moderately in 2014

    South Dakota non-irrigated agricultural land (cropland, rangeland, pasture, and hay land) values increased marginally in 2014 according to results from a farm real estate survey conducted by agricultural economists at South Dakota State University. The non-irrigated agricultural land average value in the state was $2,470 per-acre; an increase of $142 per-acre or 6.1% from last year.

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    Interactive Map for SDSU Research Projects

    South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council, local producers, and SDSU Extension and Research, in cooperation with iGrow announce a new way to communicate with you our partners in the field. An interactive map showing a portion of field research sites is now up and running. The interactive map allows anyone to post comments about a particular project and share these projects via facebook, twitter, or email.

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    Day County Crop Improvement Association Test Plot Tour Set for July 22nd

    The Day County Crop Improvement Association has announced that their spring wheat variety test plot tour will be held Tuesday, July 22nd at 5 PM near Andover. The plot is located 2.2 miles north of Highway 12 on SD Hwy 27. The plot tour will feature a number of speakers who will be discussing intensive spring wheat management for high yields. The program will feature Dylan Troske, of Dakota Wheat who has over 10 years’ experience with Intensive Wheat Management. He will outline the program that he uses with his growers in central South Dakota.

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    Harvesting Scab (FHB) Infected Wheat

    In several of the winter wheat variety plots across South Dakota, the varieties rated as susceptible to scab (Fusarium Head Blight - FHB) showed noticeable incidence of infection (Figure 1). A recent survey conducted by SDSU Extension Agronomists also found levels of scab ranging from less than 10% in western South Dakota to over 80% in one field in the eastern part of the state, and in the 10-40% range in the south-central area.

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    Nozzle Selection is Critical

    What nozzle is right for you? As the spray season moves forward it’s important to continue to assess your sprayer and make sure you’re getting the best performance with the least amount of spray drift potential. Nozzle selection is an important part of that assessment. Consider your priorities before making nozzle choices.

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    SDSU Volga Research Farm to Host IPM Field School July 29 & 30

    The 5th annual SDSU IPM Field School for Agronomy Professionals will be held at the new Volga Research Farm located one mile south of Volga, South Dakota. The school is co-sponsored by the SD Agri-Business Association and the two day in-field hands-on agronomy training will feature the following sessions.

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    Tracking Crop Progress Using Climate Data

    The focus on South Dakota weather issues for the last several weeks has been on very wet conditions and record precipitation totals during June. More of an issue at this point and for the rest of the season could be crop progress. Because of large variability in planting dates and temperatures since planting, keeping track of crop progress is very important looking ahead for the rest of the season.

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    Cover Crop Considerations in 2014

    Moisture conditions across the state may have people considering growing cover crops this year. Wheat harvest is just around the corner and many wheat producers in central South Dakota have found that cover crops planted after wheat can provide some benefits. This year with the positive moisture situation across many areas of the state, cover crops after wheat harvest will be an excellent fit.

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    Northeast Farm Summer Tour

    The annual NE Farm Tour will be held on July 9 from 4:00 pm until dusk. The tour site is located at the junction of State Highway 20 and Codington County Highway 11 (2.5 miles west of Exit 193 on I-29). The tour will wrap up with a pork loin supper.

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    Field Flooding: Impact of saturated, flooded, ponded soils on crop growth

    Some areas in the state have received over 9 inches of rain in the last 7 days. These rains have left many crop fields flooded/ponded or fully saturated. Fully saturated and flooded soils are deficient of oxygen because the soil air spaces are displaced by water. Questions are being asked if the crops submerged or partially submerged in flood water will survive. The probability that such crops will survive depends on the type of the crop, crop growth stage, soil type, temperature, and the duration of the ponding/saturation.

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    Understanding Plant’s Disease Surveillance

    Plants detect pathogens and protect themselves from disease in a slightly different way than animals do. A plant has several lines of defense any intruder must pass through: physical barriers, chemical barriers, and proteins at the molecular level. If the intruder makes it past all of these defenses, the cell still contains the NBS-LRR (Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Region) proteins, one of the five types of disease resistance proteins produced by each plant cell.

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    Cool Temperatures Slow Leafy Spurge Flea Beetles for Redistribution

    Normally the Leafy spurge flea beetles would start emerging on leafy spurge in the next two to three weeks. Mid June is the normal time of the year when we start collecting the flea beetles for distribution in South Dakota. The cooler than normal spring temperatures most likely will delay normal emergence of this bio-control agent because their life cycle is based on growing degree days much like plants.

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    How Late to Plant Spring Wheat?

    As of the April 14 USDA-NASS crop progress and condition report, 6% of the spring wheat had been planted in South Dakota. This puts us a little behind average progress according to historical records. Lack of snow cover and generally increasing air and soil temperatures has allowed many producers in the southern part of the state to get their crop planted. In the northern part of the state, where the majority of spring wheat is raised, planting has been delayed due to frost, low soil temperatures and/or snow cover until recently.

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    Glyphosate Resistant Waterhemp: A Growing Problem

    Among the four glyphosate resistant weeds in South Dakota, common waterhemp has the potential to have the highest impact areas where a corn-soybean rotation is the mainstay. Thirty years ago waterhemp was only found in the very southeast corner of the state. It was a tough weed to control then and still is.

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    Ragweed: The first resistant weed in South Dakota

    In 2007, common ragweed was identified as the first weed in South Dakota to be resistant to glyphosate. That ragweed was the first weed identified glyphosate-resistant weed was not surprising, because in 1990, ragweed was also the first weed in the United States to be found resistant to atrazine.

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    Condition of the Winter Wheat

    With the cold temperatures experienced this winter, both producers and media journalists continue to ask about the condition of the winter wheat in South Dakota, and the risk of winterkill. As one looks at a dormant winter wheat field like the one pictured, it is impossible to know if the plants are alive and will come out of dormancy when spring arrives and the soils warm.

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    Harvesting Scab (FHB) Infected Wheat

    In several of the winter wheat variety plots across South Dakota, the varieties rated as susceptible to scab (Fusarium Head Blight - FHB) showed noticeable incidence of infection (Figure 1). A recent survey conducted by SDSU Extension Agronomists also found levels of scab ranging from less than 10% in western South Dakota to over 80% in one field in the eastern part of the state, and in the 10-40% range in the south-central area.

    Read More »

    Emerging Pests of Wheat in South Dakota: Wheat stem sawfly

    Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus) has been a pest of concern in winter wheat in Montana, Colorado, North Dakota, and Nebraska for a few years now, and it is causing severe losses to wheat producers in these states. We are beginning to measure their impact on wheat production in South Dakota as well. In a research project funded by the South Dakota Wheat Commission, we are testing the efficacy of several winter and spring wheat varieties with wheat stem sawfly resistance traits.

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    SDSU Volga Research Farm to Host IPM Field School July 29 & 30

    The 5th annual SDSU IPM Field School for Agronomy Professionals will be held at the new Volga Research Farm located one mile south of Volga, South Dakota. The school is co-sponsored by the SD Agri-Business Association and the two day in-field hands-on agronomy training will feature the following sessions.

    Read More »

    Evaluate Chemical History Before Replanting

    Are you hoping to replant some soaked areas? Here are some points to consider. As the soils start to dry out, remember to check weed chemical labels; is that particular field suitable for replanting? What weed chemicals were applied earlier this year? Normally it is fine to replant to the same crop, but in the case of corn it may be too late to replant and get a crop of grain this year.

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    Northeast Farm Summer Tour

    The annual NE Farm Tour will be held on July 9 from 4:00 pm until dusk. The tour site is located at the junction of State Highway 20 and Codington County Highway 11 (2.5 miles west of Exit 193 on I-29). The tour will wrap up with a pork loin supper.

    Read More »

    Interactive Map for SDSU Research Projects

    South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council, local producers, and SDSU Extension and Research, in cooperation with iGrow announce a new way to communicate with you our partners in the field. An interactive map showing a portion of field research sites is now up and running. The interactive map allows anyone to post comments about a particular project and share these projects via facebook, twitter, or email.

    Read More »

    Foliar Feeding

    Watching corn and soybean development is a fascinating experience especially when it takes place over a relatively short period of time. When plant growth is rapid, changes can be seen practically from day to day. Understanding the growth and development stages are important and closely related to nutrient uptake.

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    Goodbye June, Hello July

    What a wet and woolly June we have had! The epicenter of rainfall and flooding has been in the far southeast. The National Weather Service office in Sioux Falls has posted a brief summary of the month’s rainfall. The top South Dakota total goes to Canton (Lincoln County) with 19.65 inches! This preliminary total is 3.53 inches over the previous (unofficial) South Dakota monthly record, which was held by Clear Lake with 16.12 inches in June of 1992. The table below is a list of stations that reported more than 15 inches, from both National Weather Service (NWS) and CoCoRaHS reports.

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    A Memorable June

    Record-setting rainfall in the southeast part of the state has dominated the headlines this week. Sioux Falls set a new monthly precipitation record, for any month of any year, with 12.97 inches through Monday, June 16. The second wettest month in Sioux Falls’ record books is now May 1898 with 9.42 inches in that month.

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    Field Flooding: Impact of saturated, flooded, ponded soils on crop growth

    Some areas in the state have received over 9 inches of rain in the last 7 days. These rains have left many crop fields flooded/ponded or fully saturated. Fully saturated and flooded soils are deficient of oxygen because the soil air spaces are displaced by water. Questions are being asked if the crops submerged or partially submerged in flood water will survive. The probability that such crops will survive depends on the type of the crop, crop growth stage, soil type, temperature, and the duration of the ponding/saturation.

    Read More »

    Short-term Flooding: Impacts on soil properties

    Recent heavy rains have created small scale stagnant flooded soil. Nitrate-N leaching and denitrification are primary concerns for crop producers. However, other soil conditions are also affected. The rapid depletion of soil oxygen causes a shift in nitrogen cycle soil micro-organisms that lead to the denitrification processes.

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    Rainfall Impacts

    All of South Dakota received precipitation during the last week ranging from just less than an inch to over 3 inches. The heaviest precipitation amounts largely aligned with regions with the least current precipitation deficits. Heaviest precipitation ranged from central to southwest South Dakota where 2-3 inches of precipitation fell. Most of this area had received decent amounts of recent precipitation and/or precipitation last fall.

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    Cropping Systems Inventory (USDA-NRCS)

    The USDA-NRCS recently released “Cropping Systems in South Dakota – A 2013 Inventory and Review”. This publication summarizes county and state level tillage and cropping systems used in South Dakota. Comparatively, the most recent inventory was taken in 2004, hence the importance of these observations in assessing land use in regards to conservation practices that protect our vitally important soil resource.

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