Written by Erin Cortus (former SDSU Extension Environmental Quality Engineer).
The presence of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDv) in South Dakota and region requires producers, manure haulers and land owners to cooperatively work together to reduce the risk of disease spread during the manure application season. Biosecurity measures during the manure hauling season are not new to Pork Producers, but it never hurts to take a fresh look at procedures on your operation, especially in light of new and ongoing research. Heat and time combinations can deactivate the virus, and limiting exposure can help reduce the risk of spreading this virus.
Ongoing research by Dr. S Goyal at University of Minnesota titled Environmental stability of PEDv has shown PEDv can survive in slurry for 14 days at room temperature (77ºF). At storage temperatures of -4ºF and 39ºF, the virus was still alive after 28 days. Fresh fecal material stored at temperatures of 104ºF to 140ºF and relative humidity between 30% and 70% survived for up to 7 days. A deactivation period of 7 days at room temperature was measured by Iowa State University Researchers (Dr. P. Thomas et al.) in a separate study titled Evaluation of time and temperature sufficient to kill PEDV in swine feces on metal surfaces. Dr. Thomas et al. set out to address concerns about livestock trailers, but this research has some application to manure application equipment as well. Dr. Thomas et al. suggest the virus can be deactivated by heating livestock trailers to 160º F for 10 minutes, but this temperature and time combination does not replace the standard recommended practice of thoroughly washing, disinfecting and drying trailers.
Understanding the survival of the virus in manure may warrant a revisit of cleaning protocols for manure hauling equipment and personnel between sites or farms.
Some key principles for cleaning to keep in mind are:
- Remove organic material prior to washing.
- After washing, allow the equipment to dry before applying any disinfectant. Excess water can dilute disinfectant.
- Follow the label for any disinfectant.
In addition, producers should review for themselves, with their staff, and contracted manure haulers (if applicable), the “line of separation”. What physical or imaginary boundary exists to keep the farm, or biosecure side, separate from the manure hauling side? What existing or new procedures do you want followed for crossing over this line?
The National Pork Board, in cooperation with the National Pork Producers Council and the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, summarize these recommendations and more in a series of guidance factsheets:
- Biosecure Manure Pumping Protocols for PED Control: Recommendations for Commercial Manure Haulers
- Biosecure Manure Pumping Protocols for PED Control: Recommendations for Land Owners
- Biosecure Manure Pumping Protocols for PED Control: Recommendations for Pork Producers